The interest in using food byproducts as a source of bioactive peptides has increased significantly in the recent years. The goal of this work was to determine the presence and stability of peptides showing angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I), endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitory activity derived from dry-cured ham bones, which could exert cardiovascular health benefits. ACE-I and DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were stable against heating typically used in Mediterranean household cooking methods and also to in vitro digestion. PAF-AH inhibitory activity significantly increased following simulated gastrointestinal digestion whereas ECE inhibitory significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The mass spectrometry analysis revealed a notable degradation of hemoglobin-derived peptides after simulated digestion, and the release of a large number of dipeptides that may have contributed to the observed bioactivities. These results suggest that natural peptides from Spanish dry-cured ham bones could contribute to a positive impact on cardiovascular health.